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Car insurance | What is Car Insurance | Car Insurance in | Car Insurance Community Policies


Car insurance

Car insurance | What is Car Insurance | Car Insurance in | Car Insurance Community Policies




Car insurance (also known as Auto insurance) is insurance for cars, trucks, motorcycles, and other road vehicles


  Its primary use is to provide financial protection from physical or damage caused by a traffic collision and a legal liability that may arise from motor vehicle accidents

  Car insurance can also provide financial protection against carjackings, as well as car damage due to non-motor vehicle accidents, such as locks, weather or natural disasters, and damage caused by collisions. Specific car insurance policies vary by legal rules in each region.



Car insurance usually includes: -


Accidental loss or injury

fire

lightning

ignition

external explosion

burglary

burglary or theft

a vicious act Liability

injury for foreign company

foreign company property and liability for paid driver Upon payment of the appropriate premium, loss 

damage to electrical 

electrical equipment


Car insurance does not include : -

Consequential lossesdepreciation

mechanical and electrical impairment

failure or breakage

When the car is used off-site Military or nuclear accidents and drunk driving


History

     Wide use of motor vehicles began after the First World War in urban areas. 

    Cars were very fast and dangerous at the time, yet there was no form of compulsory car insurance around the world. 

   This meant that injured victims rarely received compensation for the accident, and drivers often incurred significant costs of damage to their car and property.

     Compulsory car insurance scheme was first introduced in the United Kingdom under the Road Traffic Act 1930

  This ensured that all car owners and drivers should be insured for their third party injury or death while their vehicle was used in public.

   Germany enacted a similar law in 1939 called the "Compulsory Insurance Act for Car Owners."



Community Policies


Car insurance | What is Car Insurance | Car Insurance in | Car Insurance Community Policies


In many places, it is compulsory to have car insurance before using or maintaining a car on public roads.

  Many authorities are related to your insurance for both car and driver; however, each level is very different.

   A few states have tried the “pay as you drive” insurance scheme that uses a vehicle tracking device or vehicle inspection. 

  This will address the problems of uninsured drivers by providing additional options and charging based on the kilometers (kilometers) driven, which may increase the efficiency of the insurance, through organized collection.


Car insurance in Australia :- 


In Australia, every region has its own Compulsory Third Party (CTP) insurance system

   CTP covers only the liability for personal injury in a motor vehicle accident. 

   Complete Property and External Company Damage, with or without Fire and Stealing Insurance, is sold separately.

  Complete insurance covers damage to third party property as well as motor vehicle and insured property. 

      Damage to a Third-party Asset Insurance covers the damage to a third-party property and vehicles, but not an insured vehicle.

Third-party Asset Damage to Fire and Theft insurance covers an insured car against fire and theft as well as other people's property and vehicles.


Compulsory Foreign Company Insurance

  CTP insurance is compulsory in all Australian provinces and is paid as part of motor vehicle registration.

   Cover car owner or any person who drives a vehicle against a claim for death or personal injury caused by the fault of the car owner or driver. 

    CTP may cover any type of physical injury, physical injury and may cover the cost of all appropriate medical care due to injuries sustained in the accident, loss of salary, cost of care services and, in some cases, compensation for pain and suffering. Each state in Australia has a different system.

    Third-party Property Insurance or Complete Insurance covers an external company for car repair costs, any property damage or medical costs as a result of an accident caused by the insurer. It should not be confused with Compulsory Third-Party insurance, which is for injuries or deaths in a motor vehicle accident.


   In New South Wales, each car must be insured before it can be registered. It is often called 'greenslip,' because of its color. 

  There are five CTP insurers in New South Wales. 

 Suncorp has GIO and AAMI licenses and Allianz has one license. The two remaining licenses are held by QBE and NRMA Insurance (NRMA)

   APIA and Shannons and InsureMyRide insurance provide licensed CTP insurance by GIO.


    The privately held scheme also applies to the Australian Capital Territory via AAMI, APIA, GIO and NRMA. Car owners pay for CTP as part of their vehicle registration.


In Queensland, CTP has been included in the vehicle registration fee. There are private insurance options - Allianz, QBE, RACQ and Suncorp and the price is controlled by the government.


In South Australia, as of July 2016, CTP has not been granted by the Motor Accident Commission. 

   The government has now licensed four private insurance companies - AAMI, Allianz, QBE and SGIC, to provide CTP to SA. 

  From July 2019, car owners can opt for their own CTP insurance and new insurers can also enter the market.


There are three regions and one area that do not have a confidential CTP system. 

  In Victoria, the Transport Accident Commission provides CTP with a motor vehicle registration tax, known as a TAC charge. 

   A similar program exists in Tasmania with the Motor Accident Insurance Board.

   The same plan applies to Western Australia, through the Western Australian Insurance Commission (ICWA)

   The Northern Territory system is managed by the Territory Insurance Office (TIO).


Car insurance in Bangladesh: -


For all types of car insurance policies in Bangladesh, the credit limit is determined by law. 

  Currently, the limits are too low to compensate the victims. In terms of Act Only Liability Motor Vehicle Insurance, compensation for personal injuries and property damage to third parties is BDT 20,000 for death, BDT 10,000 for serious injuries, BDT 5,000 for injuries, and BDT 50,000 for property damage.


Car insurance in Canada :-


A few Canadian provinces (British Columbia, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Quebec) offer a public transport insurance scheme while nationwide insurance is provided privately [foreign company insurance is issued privately in Quebec and compulsory. The province covers everything except the car.

 Basic car insurance is mandatory throughout Canada (unless otherwise where each state government decides what benefits are included as the minimum required insurance and what benefits are available to those seeking additional benefits. 

   The inclusion of risk benefits is mandatory everywhere except Newfoundland and Labrador.

   All states in Canada have some form of faulty insurance available to victims of accidents. 

     The difference from province to province is the degree to which empathy or innocence is emphasized. International drivers entering Canada are allowed to drive any vehicle with their licensed license for a period of 3 months during which they are allowed to use their international licenses

   International law provides visitors to the country with an International Insurance Fund (IIB) until the end of the 3 month period in which the international driver must provide himself with Canadian Insurance.

   IIB is refunded every time an international pilot enters the country.

   Damage to the driver of the vehicle is optional - one of the highlights of this is in Saskatchewan, where SGI offers collision cover (less than $ 1000 deductible, as part of the collision damage) as part of its basic insurance policy.

   In Saskatchewan, citizens have the option of having their own motor insurance with the abuse plan but less than 0.5% of people have taken this option.


Car insurance in China:-


Traffic Compulsory Insurance provides protection in the event of a third party injury, loss of third party assets, etc. 

  The minimum credit cover is RMB180,000 per death and injury / accident, RMB18,000 for medical expenses, and RMB2,000 for physical loss. .

    Additional 3rd Party Liability Insurance (also known as Commercial Motor Insurance) provides additional coverage of up to RMB10,000,000 excluding driver and passengers. internal content items. 

   Excess Waiver Insurance is an additional option that eliminates any deductions.


Car insurance in Hong Kong :-

In terms of Section 4 (1) of the Motor Vehicles Insurance (Third-Party Risks) Ordinance (Cap. 272 ​​of the Laws of Hong Kong), all motorists, including its authorized users, must have insurance or other security to respect the risks of foreign companies.

    Third-party insurance protects the policyholder against death or physical liability in the foreign company up to HK $ 100,000,000 and / or damage to foreign company property up to HK $ 2,000,000 as a result of an accident caused by the use of an insured car. Comprehensive Motor Insurance is available.


Car insurance in Macau :-


Third Party Liability (“TPL”) The basic legal obligation is cover MOP 1,500,000 per accident and MOP 30,000,000 per year, which protects the legal liability from a road accident that causes loss and damage to any third party.

  Comprehensive Motor Insurance is available.



Car insurance in European Union :-


In the European Union, insurance is compulsory at a lower rate:

in the case of personal injury, a minimum cover amount of € 1,000,000 per victim or € 5,000,000 per application, regardless of the number of victims;

in the case of property damage, € 1,000,000 per claim, regardless of the number of victims.

In some European languages, complete insurance is known as casco.


Car insurance in German :-


Since 1939, it has been compulsory to have a third party insurance before keeping the car in all the states of the German government.

   In addition, every car owner is free to take out complete insurance. All types of car insurance are provided by a few private insurers

  The amount of the insurance offer is determined by a number of factors, such as the region, type of vehicle, or personal driving style.

 The minimum employment requirement defined by the German car loan / third party insurance policy is € 7,500,000 physical injury (personal injury), € 500,000 property damage and € 50,000 financial loss / unforeseen or unforeseen loss. with bodily injury or property damage.

     Insurance companies usually offer a combined total of € 50,000,000 or € 100,000,000 (approximately € 141,000,000) for personal injury, property damage and other financial loss / fortune (usually with a physical injury limit of € 8-15,000 per item, per person physically injured).


Car insurance in Hungary :-


Foreign car insurance is compulsory for all vehicles in Hungary. No possible release by cash deposit. The premium covers all damages up to HUF 500M (approximately € 1.8M) per accident without any deductions. The installation is extended to HUF 1,250M (approximately € 4.5M) in case of personal injury. 

   Car insurance policies from all EU countries and other non-EU countries apply in Hungary based on bilateral or multilateral agreements. 

   Visitors with car insurance not included in those agreements are required to purchase a monthly, renewable border policy


Car insurance in Indonesia :-


Foreign car insurance is a mandatory requirement in Indonesia and every car and motorcycle must be insured or the vehicle will not be considered legal; this compulsory car insurance is officially called the Road Traffic Accidents Compulsory Coverage Fund (Indonesian: Dana Pertanggungan Wajib Kecelakaan Lalu Lintas Jalan, DPWKLLJ). 

   Therefore, a car driver cannot drive a car until it is insured. DPWKLLJ was introduced in 1964 and only covers physical injuries, and is operated by a SOE called PT Jasa Raharja.(Persero)

    DPWKLLJ is included, with an annual payment called the Compulsory Donation to the Road Traffic Accident Fund (Indonesian: Sumbangan Wajib Dana Kecelakaan Lalu Lintas Jalan, SWDKLLJ) Satu Atap), in charge of vehicles and roads.


Car insurance in India:-


Car insurance in India deals with insurance cover for loss or damage caused by a vehicle or parts thereof due to natural and man-made disasters. 

   Provides emergency cover for individual car owners while driving with passengers and a third party liability.

   There are some general insurance companies that offer car insurance service.

   Car insurance in India is a mandatory requirement for all used vehicles whether commercial or personal. 

  Insurance companies are affiliated with leading car manufacturers. They provide their customers with instant quotes. Auto premium is determined by many factors and the price of premium increases with the increase in the price of the car

  Car insurance claims in India can be by mistake, claims of theft or claims by foreign companies. 

   Certain documents are required for claiming car insurance in India, such as 

a duly signed claim form

a copy of the RC vehicle

a copy of the driver's license

a copy of the FIR

the actual rate  

a copy of the policy.


There are different types of car insurance in India : -


1. Private Car Insurance


Private Car Insurance is a fast growing industry in India as it is compulsory for all new cars. 

  The amount of the levy depends on the design and quality of the vehicle, state where the car is registered and the year it was built. 

  This amount can be reduced by applying for a No Claim Bonus (NCB) if no insurance claim has been made in the past year.


2. Two Wheeler Insurance - 


Two Wheeler Insurance in India insists on motor vehicle accident insurance. The premium amount is based on the current showroom value multiplied by the discount rate determined by the Expenditure Advisory Committee at the beginning of the policy period.


3. Commercial Car Insurance - 


Commercial Car Insurance in India provides cover for all vehicles that can be used for personal purposes such as trucks and HMVs. 

  The amount paid depends on the value of the car showroom at the beginning of the insurance period, the type of vehicle and the place of registration of the vehicle. 


4. Third-party insurance: -


This cover is mandatory in India under the Motor Vehicles Act, 1988. 

  This cover cannot be used for personal damage. This is offered at lower premiums and allows for claims by third parties under "faultless liability". 

   The premium is calculated by the rates provided by the Expenditure Advisory Committee. 

  This is a branch of the IRDA (Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India). 

  It includes physical injury / death by accident and property damage.


Car insurance in Ireland :-


The Road Traffic Act, 1933 requires all motor vehicle drivers in public places to have at least third-party insurance, or to be exempt - usually by submitting a (large) amount to the High Court as security against claims. . 

  In 1933, the figure was set at £ 15,000. The Road Traffic Act, 1961 (currently in force) repealed the 1933 Act but replaced these sections with the same sections.

  Since 1968, depositors need the approval of the Minister of Transport to do so, at a rate determined by the Minister.

   Those who are exempt from obtaining insurance should obtain an insurance certificate from their insurance providers, and display part of this (insurance disc) on the front screen of their vehicles (if included).

  A full certificate must be submitted to the police station within ten days at the request of the officer. Proof of insurance or exemption must be provided to pay motor vehicle tax.


   Those injured or injured / lost property as a result of uninsured drivers can apply against the Irish Motor Insurance Bureau fund, as can those who are injured (but not those injured or lost) as a result of assault and driving charges.



Car insurance in Italy :-


Regulation 990/1969 requires that each vehicle or trailer parked or on a public road be covered by a third party insurance (called RCA, Responsabilità civile per gli autoveicoli). 

  Historically, part of the insurance certificate should be placed on the front screen of the car

   This latest requirement was lifted in 2015, when national insurance records were compiled by the Insurance Company Association (ANIA, Associazione Nazionale Imprese Assurance) and the National Transportation Authority (Motorizzazione Civile) to ensure (private citizens and government officials) if the car is insured . There is no exemption policy in this law.


Driving without the required insurance for that vehicle is a crime that can be prosecuted by the police and fines range from 841 to 3,287 euros.

   Police also have the power to seize a vehicle without the required insurance until the car owner pays a fine and signs a new insurance policy.The same provision applies when a vehicle is parked on a public road.


Minority insurance policies cover only third parties (including the insured person and third party carriers, but not the driver, if that is not the case). 

     Third parties, fire and theft of the same insurance, and all-inclusive policies (kasko policy) include auto accident damage or injury. 

     It is also common to insure the insurance company's withdrawal clause to compensate the insolvent for the insured in some cases (usually in the event of a DUI or other driver violation).


Victims of accidents caused by uninsured vehicles can be compensated by the Road Victims' Warranty Fund (Fondo garanzia vittime della strada), which covers a fixed amount (2.5%, in 2015) for each RCA insurance premium.



Car insurance in Netherlands


Third-party car insurance is a mandatory requirement for every vehicle in the Netherlands.

  If the vehicle does not have insurance the owner will receive a fine from RDW (Netherlands Vehicle Authority) 

  The foreign car insurance policy is called “WA verzekering” where the WA stands for “Wettelijke aansprakelijkheid” which means legal debt.  

    There are usually three types of car insurance in the Netherlands.

"WA verzekering"

"WA beperkt casco" limited framed installation and 

"WA vollledig casco" full framed installation. 

   The limited framework and the full framework will provide additional cover against additional risks that are not covered by the legal obligation to provide outsourced services. 

   For example, limited coverage will provide protection from weather - related damage such as storms and floods. 

   Fire damage and car theft were covered. The full frame will provide protection from all the stated accidents as well as the actual damage to the vehicle caused by the driver himself.



Car insurance in New Zealand :-

  Within New Zealand, the Accident Compensation Association (ACC) provides an unqualified national injury insurance policy.


  Accidents involving vehicles operating on public roads are covered by the Motor Vehicle Account, where premiums are collected on petrol taxes and motor vehicle license fees.


Car insurance in Norway :-

  In Norway, a car owner must provide minimum credit for his or her car (s) - of any kind. 

   If not, the vehicle is illegal to use. If someone drives someone else's car, and gets into an accident, the insurer will pay for the damage done. 

   Note that the policyholder may choose to limit coverage to apply only to family members or a person over a certain age.


Car insurance in Romania 


Romanian law authorizes Răspundere Auto Civilă, a car insurance policy for all car owners to cover damages to foreign companies.



Car insurance in Russian Federation :- 


Car and car liability insurance is mandatory for all owners under Russian law.

  Car insurance itself is technically voluntary, but it may be authorized in some cases, e.g. rental car.



Car insurance in South Africa :- 

    South Africa allocates a percentage of its revenue from petrol to the Road Accident Fund, which is responsible for compensating third parties for accidents.



Car insurance in Spain :-


Each vehicle on a public road to receive foreign company insurance (called "Seguro de responsabilidad civil").


Police have the power to seize vehicles that do not have the required insurance until the car owner pays a fine and signs a new insurance policy. Driving without the required insurance for that vehicle is a crime that will be prosecuted by the police and will be fined. The same provision applies when a vehicle is parked on a public road.


Minimum insurance covers only foreign companies (including the insured person and foreign companies owned by the car, but not the driver, if that does not match). Third parties, fire and theft are common policy policies.


Victims of accidents caused by uninsured vehicles can be compensated by the Warranty Fund, which is covered by a premium for each insurance premium.


From 2013 it is possible to get a daily insurance contract as it is possible in countries like Germany and the U.K.

Car insurance in United Arab Emirates :-


When purchasing car insurance in the United Arab Emirates, the traffic department requires a 13-month insurance certificate each time you register or renew your car registration

  In Dubai, car insurance is mandatory under UAE RTA law.

   There are two types of car insurance policies in Dubai

  1. Third Party Credit Insurance

  2. Complete Car Insurance.


   It is mandatory to have third-party credit insurance for every car owner in Dubai

   This insurance policy is the most basic form of Dubai car insurance as it covers damage to third party property or physical damage caused by an insured car.


  Damage to the policy owner's own motor vehicle such as fire, theft, and accidental collision are not covered under the third party credit policy.


Car insurance in United Kingdom :- 


In 1930, the UK Government introduced a law requiring everyone using a car on the road to have at least some third-party injury insurance

   Today, this law is defined by the Road Traffic Act 1988, (commonly referred to as RTA 1988 as amended) which was last amended in 1991. 

   The law requires drivers to be insured, or make a certain deposit (£ 500,000 in 1991) and keep the amount deposited in the Accountant General of the Supreme Court, against any personal injury (including passengers) and personal injury. 

 Personal property, as a result of using a motor vehicle on a public road or in other public places.

    It is an offense to use a motor vehicle, or to allow others to use it without insurance that meets the requirements of the Act. 

    This requirement applies when any part of a vehicle (even if the majority of it is on private land) is on a public highway. 

   There is no such law in the private world. However, private land to which the public has a reasonable right to enter (for example, a parking lot at a

    supermarket at the time of opening) is deemed to be included in the requirements of the Act.


Police have the power to seize vehicles that do not appear to have the required insurance. A driver who is caught driving without a motor vehicle insurance for driving purposes, is liable to prosecution by the police and, if found guilty, will receive a prescribed fine or a fine from the magistrates' court.


The vehicle registration number shown on the insurance policy, as well as other important information including insurance coverage dates is sent electronically to the existing UK Motor Insurance Database (MID) to help reduce non-insurance driving incidents in the area. 

   Police were able to detect vehicles passing between the cameras of automated number plate recognition (ANPR), and were able to search for MID immediately. 

    Proof of insurance is based entirely on the issuance of a Vehicle Insurance Certificate, or cover note, made by an Authorized Insurance, which, in order to be valid, must have previously been 'delivered' to the insurer in accordance with the Act, and published in a letter. is black ink on white paper. 

   An insurance certificate or cover note issued by an insurance company is the only official proof that the related certificate policy meets the requirements of applicable law applicable to Great Britain, Northern Ireland, Isle of Man, Island of Guernsey, Jersey Island and Alderney Island. The law states that an authorized person, such as a police officer, may require a driver to produce an insurance certificate for inspection. 

   If the driver is unable to show the document immediately on request, and proof of insurance is not available through other means such as MID, then the Police are empowered to seize the vehicle immediately.

   Immediate arrest of a car that appears to be uninsured replaces the pre-insurance checkout system where drivers are given HORT / 1 (allegedly because the order was the number 1 form issued by the Home Office traffic department). 

    This 'ticket' was an order that required that within seven days, from midnight on the day of issue, the driver concerned must take a valid insurance certificate (and usually other driver's licenses) to the driver's preferred police station. 

      Failure to produce the insurance certificate was a crime, and still is. HORT / 1 was widely known - even by the issuing authorities when dealing with the public - as a "producer". As these are rarely issued now and MID relies on them to indicate the existence of insurance or not, it is incumbent on the insurance industry to update accurately and quickly MID on details of current policy and insurers who fail to do so may be fined by the regulatory body.

  Vehicles stored in the UK should now be insured unless a Legal Entity Notification (SORN) has been officially issued. This need arose following a change in the law in June 2011 when a The regulation known as Continuous Insurance Enforcement (CIE) came into effect. 

   The result of this was that in the UK a car that could not be declared a SORN, must have a valid insurance policy whether or not it is kept on public roads and whether it is driven or not.

Insurance, and Vehicle Property Tax (VED) / license data, are shared with the relevant authorities including the police and this is an important part of the CIE approach. 

   All registered UK vehicles, including those issued in the VED (for example, Historical Vehicles and vehicles with little or no discharge) are subject to the VED tax application process. 

    Part of this is car insurance check. The original VED payment receipt was issued in the form of a paper disc, which before 1 October 2014, meant that all UK drivers had to clearly display the tax disc on their car when it was stored or driven in public roads.

    This helped to ensure that most people had adequate insurance for their vehicles because insurance was required to purchase a disc, although the insurance had only to be valid at the time of purchase and not really the life of the tax disk.

   To address the issues that arise when car insurance was later canceled but the tax disc was still valid and disclosed on the car and the vehicle used without insurance, the CIE rules can now be used as a Driver's License and Driver for Vehicle Licensing Regulatory Authority (DVLA). 

   that a taxable but uncertified vehicle is easily detected by both authorities and the Traffic Police

   As of 1 October 2014, it is no longer a legal requirement to show a motor vehicle tax license (tax disc) on a car.

   This is because the entire VED process can now be controlled electronically and close to MID, minus the cost, to the UK Government, of paper production.


  If a vehicle is to be "parked" for any reason, a Statutory Off Road Notification (SORN) must be submitted to the DVLA to declare the vehicle off the public road and will not return to them unless SORN is canceled car owner. 

  Once a vehicle has been declared 'SORN' the legal requirement to certify it ends, although many car owners may wish to take care of the loss or damage of the vehicle while off the road. 

   The vehicle to be returned to the road must be subject to a new VED application and be insured. 

  Part of the VED application requires an electronic MID check, thus the official availability of the vehicle on the road for both VED and insurance purposes is strengthened. 

   This follows that the only circumstances in which a vehicle is uninsured if it has a valid SORN;issued to the SORN (as it has not been taxed on or before 31 October 1998 and has not had any tax or SORN activity since); recorded as 'stolen and undiscovered' by the Police; is among registered custodians; or discarded.


    Road Traffic Act Only Insurance is different from that of Private Side Insurance (described below) and is seldom sold, unless it is based on, for example, a business entity wishing to commit itself beyond the requirements of the Act. It provides very little cover to meet the requirements of the Act. The Road Traffic Act Only has a £ 1,000,000 liability limit for third party property, while only third party insurance has a maximum liability for third party property damage.


   Car insurance brokers in the UK set a limit on the amount they should be paid in the event of a third party claim against the legal policy. 

   This can be explained in part by the Great Heck Rail Crash which cost insurers more than £ 22,000,000 as compensation for the deaths and property damage caused by the actions of the insured car driver. 

   There is no limit to the claims of third parties for death or personal injury, yet UK car insurance is now usually limited to £ 20,000,000 for any claim or series of claims for loss or damage to third party property caused by a single incident. .

   The lowest level of insurance that is generally available, and meets the requirements of the Act, is only called third party insurance

   The level of insurance provided by a third party insurance is basic, but it exceeds the legal requirements. This policy covers any liabilities to third parties, but does not cover any other risks.

   Common third party purchases, fire and theft. This covers all foreign company liabilities and covers the car owner against fire damage (whether brutal or due to a car accident) and car insurance theft. It may cover property damage or not.This type of insurance and the previous two types do not include car damage caused by the driver or other accidents.

    Complete insurance covers all of the above as well as motor vehicle injuries caused by the driver himself, as well as property damage and other accidents. 

   This is usually the most expensive type of insurance. It is customary in the UK for insurance customers to refer to their Comprehensive Insurance as "Completely Comprehensive" or, more commonly, "Comp Comprehensive". This is tautology as the word 'Comprehensive' means full.

    Other categories of vehicle ownership, or use, are "Crown Exempt" for a requirement to be included under the Act which includes vehicles owned or used by certain councils and local authorities, national park authorities, education authorities, police officers, fire authorities, health service. bodies, security services and vehicles used or departing for Shipping purposes. 

   Although exempt from the insurance guarantee system, this does not provide protection against claims, so the Crown Exempt may choose to do insurance in the normal way, preferring to incur the known costs of insurance premiums rather than accept The open exposure to effective performance, self-assurance under Crown's release.


Motor Insurers' Bureau (MIB):-

  compensates victims of road accidents caused by uninsured and unscrupulous drivers. It also uses MID, which contains details of every insured vehicle in the country and serves as a means of sharing information between insurance companies.

   Soon after the introduction of the Road Traffic Act in 1930, unexpected problems arose when drivers needed to drive a car that did not belong to them in real emergency situations. 

   Volunteering to move a car, for example, when another driver falls ill or is involved in an accident, could result in the "assisted" driver being prosecuted without insurance if the car insurance does not pay for use by any driver. 

    To alleviate this hole, an extension of the UK Car Insurances has been introduced which allows the Policy Owner to own any car that does not belong to him or her and is not leased to him under a purchase or lease agreement. 

   This cover extension, known as "Driving Other Cars" (when approved) usually applies to the Policy Owner only. Provided cover is for the risks of third parties only and there is no cover at all for loss, or damage to the vehicle being driven. This feature of UK car insurance is the only one that aims to pay for car driving, not usage.

    On March 1, 2011, the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg ruled that gender could no longer be used by insurance brokers to set car insurance premiums. The new decision went into effect in December 2012.


Investigation of repair costs and fraud claims :-



 In September 2012, it was announced that the Competition Commission had launched an investigation into the UK's debt management program and the hiring of another vehicle leading to claims from third parties following an accident. 

   When their client is considered flawless, Risk Management Companies will handle their client's request and arrange everything for them, usually on the basis of 'No Profit - No Money'

  It was pointed out that faulty car insurance providers, could not intervene to control the costs incurred in the claim in the form of repairs, maintenance, car rental, transfer fees and personal injury

  Subsequent costs of other items to be considered have been a cause for concern in recent years as this has led to an increase in the cost of the premium, as opposed to the general duty of all parties involved to reduce application costs. 

   Also, the recent madness of "Crash Money" has greatly increased the cost of policies. 

     It was there that the two sides arranged the collision of their vehicles and one driver made extreme claims of damage and non-damage to them and the passengers who had planned to be “in the car” at the time of the crash. 

   Another recent incident was that the driver deliberately caused the driver to “hit the brakes” so that the rear driver could hit them, which is usually the case at a roundabout, with the driver turning to the right when the traffic was light and blind. 

  that the car in front of you suddenly stopped for no reason. 

  The 'committing' of a motor vehicle collision on a Public Highway for the purpose of attempting insurance fraud is considered by the Courts as a premeditated crime and in a criminal case it is dealt with.


Car insurance in United States :- 

Car insurance regulations vary from 50 states in the US and to other states, and to U.S. states. has its own essential requirements . 

   Each of the 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia requires drivers to have your own insurance for both physical and material damage, with the exception of New Hampshire and Virginia, but the minimum amount of care required by law varies from region to region. 

  For example, the minimum mortgage debt requirements range from $ 30,000 in Arizona [43] to $ 100,000 in Alaska and Maine, while the minimum mortgage debt requirements range from $ 5,000 to $ 25,000 in most states.



Car insurance in United Malaysia :- 


In Malaysia, renewing car insurance is very common. In total, there are four types of car insurance available to the Malaysian people:


Action cover :-

This is a small insurance policy compliant with the provisions of the 1987 Road Traffic Act. This insurance deals with the legal obligation of death or physical injury to a third party (excluding passengers), so it has never been covered by insurance brokers.

   Installation of foreign companies

This type is mandatory if you buy the whole car and therefore it is a basic and standard car insurance, which ensures you are facing claims of injury or damage to a third party or his property in an accident.

   Foreign companies, fire, and theft

In addition to the third-party insertion, this policy also offers you cover for your car in the event of a fire or theft.


Complete installation :- 


 This policy provides the most comprehensive cover, namely third party injuries and deaths, third party vehicle injuries and injuries caused by fire, theft or accident. This type of insurance is usually designed for luxury cars.


Integration rates :-


Car insurance can cover some or all of the following:

Group with insurance (medical payments)

Property damage caused by an insured person

Insured vehicle (physical injury)

Third party (car and persons, property damage and physical damage)

Third, fire and theft


  In some areas insured car occupant injuries are available without regard to the No Fault Auto Insurance

Cost of renting a car if yours is damaged.

The cost of towing your car to take you to a repair shop.


Accidents involving uninsured drivers.

Different policies specify the conditions under which each item is assembled. For example, a car can be insured against theft, fire damage, or accidental injury independently.

  If the car is said to have lost a lump sum and the market value of the car is less than the amount still owed to the car finance bank, GAP insurance can cover the difference. 

  Not all car insurance covers GAP insurance. GAP insurance is usually given to a financial company when a car is purchased.


Extra Editing :-


Excess pay, also known as deductible, is a fixed contribution that must be paid every time a car is repaired at the cost of car insurance. 

  This payment is usually made directly to the accident "garage" (the word "garage" refers to the place where the vehicles are provided and repaired) where the owner collects the car. If a person's car is declared "canceled" (or "complete"), the insurance company will deduct the excess amount agreed on in the policy on the compensation payment to the owner.

If the accident was the fault of another driver, and the error was accepted by a third party insurance company, then the car owner may be able to reimburse the additional insurance company.


The extra money itself can be protected by excessive car insurance.


Mandatory exaggeration :-


Mandatory overpayment is the minimum amount an insurer will receive from the insurer. Minor offenses vary depending on personal details, driving record and insurance company. For example, small or inexperienced drivers and incident types may incur additional mandatory costs.


Voluntary excess :-

In order to reduce the insurance premium, the insured person may offer to pay more than the minimum amount required by the insurance company. Voluntary overpayment is an additional amount, in addition to the mandatory amount, which is agreed upon to be paid in the event of a claim against the policy. As large amounts reduce the financial risk of the insurer, the insurer is able to offer a much lower premium.


Basic cost base :-

the choice of car insurance risk Depending on the location, the insurance premium may be approved by the government or determined by the insurance company, in accordance with a government policy framework. 

  Generally, the insurer will have more freedom to set the price on the physical damage cover than the obligation cover.

  If a premium is not approved by the government, it is usually obtained from actuarial calculations, based on statistical data. 

  The premium may vary depending on a number of factors that are believed to affect the expected cost of future claims.

  Those features may include vehicle characteristics, selected coverage (deduction, limit, available risk), driver profile (age, gender, driving history) and vehicle usage (commute to work or not, predictable distance).



Neighbor :-


Owner's address may affect premiums. Areas with high crime rates often lead to higher insurance costs.


Gender :-


Because male drivers, especially younger ones, are generally considered to be more likely to drive, the premiums levied on car policy by their male chief driver are often higher. This discrimination may be discontinued once the driver is over a certain age.

  On March 1, 2011, the European Court of Justice ruled that insurance companies that used gender as a risk factor in calculating insurance premiums violated EU equality laws.

   The Court ruled that car insurance companies discriminate against men.

    However, in some areas, such as the UK, companies have adopted the common practice of work-based discrimination in order to still use sex as a commodity, albeit indirectly. The art that is often practiced by men is considered to be very dangerous even if it did not exist before the Court's decision while the debate is applied to the most common activities among women.

  One consequence of this decision is that, although the pay for men has been reduced, it has been increased for women. This measurement effect has also been observed in other types of individual insurance, such as life insurance.


Age :-


Young drivers who do not have a driving record will have higher car insurance premiums. However, young drivers are often given discounts if they do additional driving training in well-known courses, such as the Pass Plus scheme in the UK

  In the US many insurance brokers offer a decent degree discount for students with a good academic record and student residency discounts for those living away from home. 

  Usually insurance premiums are usually lower when they are 25 years old. Some insurance companies offer "stand-alone" car insurance aimed specifically at low-income young people. 

  By imposing restrictions on youth driving (banning driving late at night, or for example riding other young people), these companies reduce their risk.

   Senior drivers are often eligible for retirement discounts, indicating the minimum number of miles driven by this age group. However, prices may increase for older drivers after age 65, due to the increased risk associated with older drivers. 

  In general, the increased risk for drivers over the age of 65 is associated with mood swings, reaction times, and the risk of injury.


U.S. driving history :-


In many U.S. states, traffic violations, which include red light and speeding, check points on a driver's driving record. 

  As additional points indicate an increased risk of future violations, insurance companies periodically review driver's records, and may increase the applicable fees.

   Measurement procedures, such as debit bad driving history, are not prescribed by law. 

  Most insurers allow one-time violations every three to five years before raising premiums. 

  Accidents affect insurance premiums in the same way. Depending on the severity of the accident and the number of points tested, the value could increase by 20 to 30 percent.


Marital status :-


Statistics show that married drivers make fewer risks compared to other people so married policyholders usually receive lower premiums than single people.


Category : -


Driver work can be used as part of determining premiums. Certain craftsmanship may appear to cause damage if it usually involves extra travel or the carrying of expensive goods or stock or if it is prevalent among women or among men.



Separation of vehicles :-


The two most important factors involved in determining the risk of under-vehicle registration are: operating capacity and retail costs. The most widely available car insurance providers have limitations on cars that are likely to be built for high speed and performance levels, or for cars that sell for more than a certain dollar price. 

   The cars that are often considered luxury cars often carry the most expensive physical injury premiums because they are so expensive to replace. 

   Cars that can be described as efficient cars will carry higher premiums often because there is a greater chance of dangerous driving behavior. 

  Motorcycle insurance may carry lower property damage charges because the risk of injury to other vehicles is lower, but higher debt or personal injury charges, because motorcyclists face a variety of physical hazards while on the road. 

  The classification of motor vehicle accidents also takes into account the statistical analysis of reported thefts, accidents, and equipment malfunctions throughout the year, construction, and vehicle model.


Distance :-


Some car insurance schemes do not differentiate between how much a car is used. There are, however, lower mileage discounts offered by other insurance providers. 

   Other segregation methods will include a further distance from the road between the area where ordinary people live and their normal, everyday places.


Reasonable distance rating :- 


Another important factor in determining car insurance premiums includes the annual mileage placed on the car, and for what reason. 

   Driving and returning to work every day at a certain distance, especially in urban areas where conventional traffic routes are known, poses a different risk than how an unemployed retiree can use his car. 

   It is a common practice for this information to be provided only to the insurer, but other insurers have begun collecting regular odometer readings to confirm the risk.


Odometer-based systems :- 


Cents Per Mile Now (1986) promotes split odometer-mile measurements, a type of use-based insurance. After the company's hazardous materials have been used, and the customer has accepted the perimeter of each offer, customers purchase the paid mileage for insurance cover as required, such as purchasing liters of fuel (liters of fuel). 

   Insurance ends automatically when the odometer limit (written on the car insurance card card) is reached, unless purchased extra distance. Customers track miles on their odometer to determine when to purchase more. 

   The company does not charge the customer after the fact, and the customer does not have to limit the "next year's mile" in order for the company to receive a discount. In the event of a traffic jam, an official can easily verify the insurance policy, by comparing the number on the insurance card with the odometer.

   Critics point out that it is possible to cheat the system by using odometer tampering. 

   Although new electronic odometers are difficult to rewind, they can still be broken by cutting the odometer wires and reconnecting them over time. 

  However, as the Centers Per Mile Now website points out:


As a matter of fact, resetting odometers requires tools and technology that make stealing insurance risky and cost-effective.

   For example, in order to steal 32,200 miles of continuous protection while paying only 2000 between 35000 and 37000 on the odometer, a reset will need to be done at least nine times, in order to keep the odometer readable in a narrow space 3,200 km wide. 

 There are also strong legal barriers to this approach to stealing insurance coverage. 

   Odometers often serve as a tool for estimating resale value, rental and rental costs, guarantee limits, equipment breakdown, and tax deductions per mile or business or government travel returns. 

   Disruption of the odometer, which was discovered during the litigation process, terminated the insurance and, under state law and state government for decades, was fined heavily and imprisoned.

Under the cent-per-centimeter system, slow driving rewards are automatically delivered, without the need for strenuous and expensive GPS technology. 

   Equilibrium equilibrium with the first mile provides a basis for statistically valid measurement categories.

Insurance premium income automatically accompanies the increase or decrease in driving activity, reduces the demand for insurance resulting in inflation and prevents today’s failures for insurance retailers, where a reduction in driving activity reduces costs but not premiums.


GPS-based system :- 


In 1998, Progressive Insurance company launched a test program in Texas, where drivers received a discount for installing a GPS-based device that tracked their driving behavior and reported results on a cell phone to the company.

  The program was completed in 2000. In the years that followed, many policies (including Progressive) were successfully tested and implemented worldwide in what is now called Telematic Insurance. 

 Such 'telematic' policies are generally based on black-box insurance technology, such tools that come out of a stolen car and tracking vehicles but are used for insurance purposes.

  Since 2010 GPS-based and Telematic Insurance systems have become increasingly common in the auto insurance market and not just aimed at the special fleet markets of luxury cars or luxury cars (emphasizing the recovery of stolen cars). Modern GPS-based applications


labeled 'PAYD' Pay As You Drive insurance policies, 'PHYD' Pay How You Drive or from 2012 Smartphone auto insurance policies that use smartphones as a GPS sensor, e.g. A detailed smartphone survey as a measure of insurance telematics evaluation is provided at


OBDII-based program:-


Progressive Corporation has introduced a Snapshot to provide drivers with a customized level of insurance based on recording how their car is being driven, how much, and when.

  The summary is currently available in 46 states and the District of Columbia. Because insurance is regulated at the state level, Snapshot is currently not available in Alaska, California, Hawaii, and North Carolina.

   Driving data is transmitted to the company using a telematic device on board. The device connects to the OnBoard Diagnostic (OBD-II) car port (all petrol vehicles in the USA built after 1996 have OBD-II.) And transmits speed, time of day and number of miles in which the vehicle is being driven. Cars that drive slower, less dangerous, and less dangerous times of the day may receive significant discounts. 

  Progressive has acquired patents on its own methods and plans for using the use-based insurance and licensed these methods and programs for other companies.

Metromile also uses an OBDII-based system for their mileage-based insurance. They offer real mileage insurance when the behavior or style of driving is ignored, and the user pays only the basic amount and the fixed amount per mile.

   The OBD-II device measures miles and transmits mile data to servers.This should be the policy of affordable car insurance for junior drivers. 

 Metromile currently offers only personal insurance policies and is available in California, Oregon, Washington, and Illinois.


Credit ratings :-


Insurance companies have started to use policyholders' credit ratings to determine the risk. Drivers with good credit score receive lower insurance premiums, as they are believed to be financially stable, have a greater responsibility and have the funds to take better care of their vehicles.

  Those with low credit scores can have their premiums increased or their insurance canceled immediately.

 It has been shown that good drivers with credit records may be charged higher premiums than bad drivers with good credit records.


Behavioral-based insurance :- 


It has been suggested that the use of non-disruptive cargo monitoring be detected for drunken driving and other dangerous conduct.

  A US patent application that combines this technology with a product-based insurance product to create a new type of behavior-based auto insurance product is currently open to public comment on peer-to-peer ownership. See ethical-based security. 

 Behavior-based behavioral insurance is often referred to as Telematics or Telematics2.0 in some cases monitoring focuses on analyzing behavior such as smooth driving.


Repair insurance :- 


The examples and views in this section speak volumes about the United States and do not represent the global opinion on this issue. (September 2012)

   Car repair insurance is an extension of the car insurance available throughout the 50 United States that covers the natural wear and tear of the car, without any damage related to the car accident.

   Some drivers choose to purchase insurance as a way to protect themselves from expensive non-accident-related accidents.


   Contrary to other common and basic insertions such as full insurance and collision, car insurance does not cover the car if it is damaged by a collision, during a natural disaster or at the hands of the victims.


For many it is an attractive form of protection after the expiration of warranty on their vehicles.

Providers can also offer sub-categories of car repair insurance. 

  There are standard repair insurance that covers aging and car cracks, as well as natural disasters. 

  Some companies will only provide mechanical damage insurance, which covers only the repairs needed when the broken parts need to be repaired or replaced. 

  These components include transmission, oil pumps, pistons, time gears, flywheels, valves, axles and joints.


In several countries insurance companies offer straightforward (DRP) programs so that their customers can easily access the recommended car repair shop. 

   Some also offer to buy in one place where a damaged car can be unloaded and a claimant, the car is repaired and usually a replacement rental car is usually provided. 

  When repairing a car the car repair shop is responsible for following the instructions regarding the manufacturer of the original equipment manufacturer (OEM), the actual parts of the equipment suppliers (OES), the standard parts parts (MQ) and the standard replacement parts. 

  Both DRP and non-OEM components help keep costs low and keep insurance prices competitive. 

   AIRC (International Car body repair Association) General Secretary Karel Bukholczer has made it clear that the DRP has had a significant impact on car repair shops.



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